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    Untitled Document

    Lupine

    Cereals Potatoes Maize Flax Sunflower Sugar beet Grain crops and panicled cereals Legumes Fodder crops Vegetables Horticultures and berries Vine Decorative and other cultures


    Materials used in this chapter were published in the book Biostimulant Albit for increasing yields and protection of agricultures against diseases, A.K. Zlotnikov, Ed. Prof. . Melkumova. All-Russia Institute of Plant Protection, Russia, 2006.

    In recent years, lupine has been taking an important place in the sown areas all over the world. In EU and Australia expansion of areas with lupine is observed, which is associated with breeding of resistant non-alkaloid varieties of lupine. Lupine contains 35-42% of protein, which is balanced in amino acid composition. The significant content of essential amino acids in the protein, as well as number of functional and technological properties of lupine flour, which exceed the properties of soy one, make lupine the most promising additive during food production. Lupine protein, in contrast to soy protein, practically does not contain inhibitors of proteolytic enzymes and almost does not cause allergic reactions. In this regard, white lupine flour is increasingly used as an additive to bakery and confectionery. Lupine seeds also contain oil, which is similar to olive oil. This allows non-alkaloid lupine to take the place of soybean where it can not be grown, for example because of low soil pH.

    These advantages of lupine and dependence of Russia on the import of protein-containing products highlight the importance of growing of non-alkaloid lupine varieties. However, lupine yield is still far from the productive potential. There are many methods of breeding and cultivation of lupine for solving of this problem. In particular, treatment of plants with growth regulators is effective method.

    On lupine, Albit is applied as antidote for decrease of side phytotoxic effect of pesticides on crop. In Russia, Albit is officially registered as a plant growth regulator of lupine. Albit increases field germination capacity, accelerates plant growth and development, improves plant resistance to unfavorable conditions of the environment, provides defense against plant diseases. Also, Albit increases lupine yield and improves the yield quality.

    Effect of Albit on lupine has been tested since 2001 yr. in field trials of All-Russia Institute of Vegetable Selection and Seed Breeding (Moscow oblast), Brest Regional Agricultural Experimental Station in Belarus (2008-2009) and also in other institutes and farms.

    In 2001 in field trials of All-Russia Institute of Vegetable Selection and Seed Breeding (Moscow oblast) effect of Albit on yellow alkaloid-free lupine was tested. Annual lupine var. Bryanskij-6 was grown on plots 9 m2. Sowing date May 20, harvest date the beginning of September. Two methods of treatment were applied: seed treatment and foliar spraying at the budding stage (400 L/h of working solution). Application rate 30-50 mL/t(h).

    As a result, increased field germination of seeds treated with Albit was observed (by 5-10% over control in variant without treatment). After foliar spraying with Albit more active flowering was observed. In all variants yield increase over control was observed, yield was 0.7 t/h. Maximal yield increase was 14.3% and 15.7% in variants with seed treatment + foliar spraying with Albit in doses 50 mL/t + 30 mL/h and 50 mL/t + 50 mL/h, respectively.

    Field trials were conducted in Belarus (Brest Regional Agricultural Experimental Station, 2008-2009). Effect of Albit was tested on lupine angustifoliate var. Mihail. Two application methods were used: seed treatment (10 L of working solution per 1 tonne) and foliar spraying at the budding stage (300 L/h of working solution) with doses 40-50 mL/t(h). Inoculation of seeds with nodule bacteria Rhizobium lupini was applied in some variant with recommended doses.

    In conditions of a moderately moist growing season of 2008 Albit had a major and stable positive effect on lupine yield. Very wet weather conditions in the first half of the growing season of 2009 contributed to intensive linear growth of narrow-leaved lupine. However, there was a significant fall of flowers. Combination of unfavorable soil and weather factors caused the enhanced branching of plants.

    Lupine yield in control was 3.35 t/h and 1.77 t/h in 2008 and 2009, respectively. However, in spite of such significant differences in control, the positive effect of Albit remained the same. In unfavourable conditions of 2009 positive effect of Albit was even more pronounced. In field trial of 2008 foliar spraying with Albit increased yield by 9.6% to control, in 2009 by 36.2%. The increased number of seeds per plant was also observed (increase to control was 16.9 pcs.).

    Variants with Albit and nodule bacteria had a positive effect on lupine yield (see Table). Two-factor dispersion analysis (factor inoculation of seeds; factor foliar spraying with Albit) shown the following: Rhizobium took part in 60% of yield forming, following sprayings with plant growth regulators 16%. The interaction of studied factors is also reliable (7%). The significant difference between effects of different stains-inoculants was not detected.

     

    Table. Influence of treatments with Albit and nodule bacteria on yield of angustifoliate lupine (Brest Regional Agricultural Experimental Station in Belarus, 2008-2009)

    Seed treatment

    Foliar spraying at the budding stage

    Yield, t/h

    Yield increase to control (in brackets to variant with Rhizobium treatment)

    2008

    2009

    average

    t/h

    %

    Without treatment

    Without treatment (control)

    3.35

    1.77

    2.56

    n/d

    n/d

    Albit, 40 mL/h

    3.67

    2.41

    3.04

    0.48

    1.88

    Albit, 50 mL/t

    Without treatment

    3.65

    2.05

    2.85

    0.29

    1.13

    Albit, 40 mL/t

    3.54

    2.28

    2.91

    0.35

    1.37

    Rhizobium lupini

    Without treatment

    3.68

    1.97

    2.83

    0.27 (n/d)

    1.06 (n/d)

    Albit, 40 mL/h

    3.97

    2.43

    3.2

    0.64 (0.37)

    2.5 (1.31)

    Rhizobium lupini + Albit, 50 mL/t

    Without treatment

    4.14

    1.9

    3.02

    0.46 (0.19)

    1.8 (0.67)

    Albit, 40 mL/h

    3.92

    2.44

    3.18

    0.62 (0.35)

    2.42 (1.24)

    LSD05

    1.7

    3.5

    2.0

     

    n/d no data

     

    In variants without nodule bacteria treatment, foliar spraying with Albit was more effective, than seed treatment (yield increase to control was 18.8% and 11.3%, respectively). Inoculation of seeds with nodule bacteria gave yield increase ca. 10.6% to control. However, in combination of nodule bacteria with Albit (50 mL/t) yield increase was higher (18.8%). This fact points to a good compatibility of Albit with rhizobial inoculants.

    Maximal yield increase (24-25% to control) was observed after foliar spraying with Albit (40 mL/h) in variant with inoculation of seeds with Rhizobium. At the same time, without rhizobial bacteria a complex treatment with Albit (seed treatment + foliar spraying) demonstrated a lower efficacy than in variant with one-fold spraying. This may be due to increased number of seeds with lower weight.

    Thereof, foliar spraying with Albit at the budding stage or complex treatment seed treatment with nodule bacteria + following spraying are optimal for lupine yield increase. This recommended treatment increases lupine yield by 0.350.48 t/h.

    It is recommended to conduct seed treatment (50 mL/t) and foliar spraying at the budding stage (BCH 50-60, 30 mL/h). Albit may be applied as antidote in tank mix with pesticides, according to recommendations for last ones.

     

    In the following Table, you may see all reports on performance of Albit on lupine, available in English. For all available reports, please see corresponding table on the Russian webpage

    Year

    Country

    Region

    Institute / Farm

    Report

    1.

    2001

    Russia

    Moscow region

    All-Russia Institute of Vegetable Selection and Seed Breeding

     

     



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