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    Untitled Document

    Alfalfa

    Cereals Potatoes Maize Flax Sunflower Sugar beet Grain crops and panicled cereals Legumes Fodder crops Vegetables Horticultures and berries Vine Decorative and other cultures

    Materials used in this chapter were published in the article: Kharchenko G.L. Ways of improving the productivity of Alfalfa / G.L. Kharchenko, T.A. Ryabchinskaya, N.A. Sarantseva, I.Y. Bobreshova, A.K. Zlotnikov, V.K Gins // Plant Protection and Quarantine. - 2008. No. 5. - pp. 36-37.

    Alfalfa takes a leading place among perennial fodder grasses due to a lot of mowings, high yield and high nutritional value of fodder mass. One of the effective actions for increasing productivity of Alfalfa is introduction in technology of culture growing a multifunctional biostimulants.

    Albit (liquid paste) is one of the modern native multipurpose biostimulants with a wide range of actions. Adaptive action of Albit for perennial grasses is important viz increase ability of plants to endure different stresses (wintering, drought, mowing).

    Estimate of effectiveness of biostimulant on Alfalfa (first year) was conducted in field trial VNIISSOK (Odintsovskii region, Moscow oblast). Alfalfa var. Severnaya hybridnaya was grown on plots 0.5 ha (fourfold replication). Forecrop table beet. At the budding stage plants were treated with different concentrations of Albit: 20, 40 and 80 mL of biostimulant/ha. Mowing was in September 20 when herbage of beans was fulvous by 90-95 %. Yield of green mass and seeds was determined.

    Yield of green mass in control in average was 7.6 t/ha. Albit treatment (20 mL/ha) gives reliable yield increase by 10.5 %. When using of higher dose of Albit (40 mL/ha), yield increase of green mass was the highest (19.7 %). With a further increasing of biostimulant dose (80 mL/ha), yield increase to control was 15.1 %.

    From the point of view of biomass increasing, variant with treatment 40 mL Albit/ha is optimal. In this variant statistically reliable seed yield increase was also observed (17.3 % to control).

    It is known, that with the aging of herbage, yield of crop was significantly decreased already on third year of applying compared to the first year, plant density decreases by 40 % and more. Studying of Albit treatment on middle-aged sowings of Alfalfa (forth year growing) was conducted in conditions of forest steppe zone of Central Black Earth region (Voronezh oblast, var. Pavlovskayapestraya). Plants were treated with Albit (foliar spraying) in spring in the beginning of vegetation (April 17), further in 7-10 days after each mowing at the next resumption of plant growth. It was estimated the effect of biostimulant at 3 consumption rates - 40, 70 and 100 mL/ha.

    Account of plant tillering in spring regrowth of shoots (in 40 days after foliar spraying) was revealed that amount of stems per 1 plant (Albit treatment) was higher by 13.5-17.7 % vs. untreated plot (control). At the same time, the best results were revealed in varants with Albit treatment (consumption rate 40 and 70 mL/ha, 29.5-30.6 shoots per plant). By mowing, amount of productive shoots was increased by 15.6-29.1 %.

    Assessment of biometrics parameters and identification of vegetative mass of Alfalfa were conducted before each grass mowing. In all parameters biostimulant Albit had statistically significant higher results. At foliar spraying of growing shoots with Albit, total plant productivity significant increased due to increase the amount of growing shoots, forming more side and reproductive shoots vs. control (branches and brushes).

    Albit treatment at period of shoots regrowth after first and second mowings of Alfalfa contributed to increase the amount of reproductive stems by 30-70 % (up to 78.5 %), and in general, total amount of stems was increased up to 50 %.

    Severe weather conditions (2007) negatively affected on development and productivity of crops and Alfalfa: very early warm spring gave way to cold snap (by 1.6-2.6 below average temperatures in II-III decades in April and in I decade in May) with a lack of moisture during all growing season. It did not allow to obtain a high crop of green mass. However, applying of biostimulant Albit created a good conditions for quick development of perennial grasses, and first spring mowing was conducted at early terms, contributing further development of Alfalfa and obtaining following complete mowings. In total, amount of side branches on productive stems was significantly higher vs. control. For example, at consumption rate of Albit 70 mL/ha, this parameter was 2205-2614 pcs/m? (by 1.7-2.2 times higher than in untreated plot). Field trials were conducted on Alfalfa (4th year of cultivation, mowing for animal feeding), so the final assessment of culture productivity was not carried out. However, biostimulant Albit allowed to significantly increase the amount of inflorescences per one productive stem: from 1.1 and 2.0 (in control) to 1.7 2.8 pcs/plant in experimental variants in second and third mowings accordingly. This parameter per 1 m? was 975 and 1438 inflorescences in Albit treatment, 70 mL/ha (by 2.2-2.9 times higher than in control and by 8-54 % compared to other doses of Albit (40 100 mL/ha).

    Table 1. Growth-stimulating effect of Albit treatment on Alfalfa (VNIIZR, 2007)
    Account Variant Productive stems Height of stems, cm Amount of inflorescences, pcs/m? Yield of green mass, t/ha Yield increase
    pcs/m? % t/ha %
    First mowing (May)

    Control

    343 100 37,4 11,23

    Albit, 40 mL/ha

    443 129,1 36,4 14,25 3,02 26,9

    Albit, 70 mL/ha

    397 115,6 39,0 13,54 2,31 20,6

    Albit, 100 mL/ha

    399 116,3 36,9 12,72 1,49 13,3
    Second mowing (July)

    Control

    321 100 24,3 337 4,76

    Albit, 40 mL/ha

    546 170,1 24,9 633 7,67 2,91 61,1

    Albit, 70 mL/ha

    573 178,5 28,1 975 9,14 4,38 92,0

    Albit, 100 mL/ha

    430 134,0 29,3 735 8,05 3,29 69,1
    Third mowing (August)

    Control

    332 100 27,7 652 6,19

    Albit, 40 mL/ha

    407 122,6 30,7 965 7,28 1,09 17,6

    Albit, 70 mL/ha

    505 152,1 32,3 1438 9,74 3,55 57,4

    Albit, 100 mL/ha

    537 161,7 32,5 1233 9,84 3,65 59,0

    Foliar spraying of Alfalfa with Albit contributes of yield increasing of green mass. As a result of Albit treatment in spring at the beginning of the regrowth of vegetation of crop, yield of biomass was 12.72-14.25 t/ha (yield increase 13.3-26.9 % to control). Optimal consumption rate of biostimulant - 40 mL/ha. Yield increase of second and third mowings was more significant - 57.4-92.0 % at a higher consumption rate of Albit (70 mL/ha).

    Assessment of fungistasis of biostimulant relatively to leaf diseases revealed that at low and middle levels of development of brown spots and ascochyta-leaf spot, effect of Albit was in the range 16-36 %, in some cases 62-73 %.

    Consequently, Albit treatment contributes to increasing of Alfalfa productivity as a result of positive effect of biostimulant on all studied parameters of crop vegetative growth: increasing of tillering, plant height, shoot formation, accelerating of budding stage, increase the number of inflorescences and total plant biomass, increasing a resistance to several diseases. Applying of multifunctional biostimulant Albit on Alfalfa is highly profitable. Total income (three mowings) at consumption rate 40, 70 and 100 mL/ha was 6900, 10678 and 8014 rubles/ha accordingly, payback 4.96.1 times (Table 2).

    As a results of field trials, the optimal technique of Albit treatment for Alfalfa is the following: foliar spraying in spring at the beginning of vegetative growth at consumption rate 40 mL/ha and in 7-10 days after each mowing at consumption rate 70 mL/ha.

    Table 2. Economic efficiency of Albit (Liquid paste) applying on Alfalfa (VNIIZR, 2007)

    Variant Yield increase, t/ha Pure income, rubles/ha Profitability, %

    Payback

    Albit, 40 mL/ha

    First mowing

    3,02 3020 521 6,2

    Second mowing

    2,91 2912 513 6,1

    Third mowing

    1,09 968 275 3,8

    Total, average

    7,02 6900 460 5,6

    Albit, 70 mL/ha

    First mowing

    2,31 2198 391 4,9

    Second mowing

    4,38 4986 613 7,1

    Third mowing

    3,55 3494 495 5,9

    Total, average

    10,24 10678 513 6,1

    Albit, 100 mL/ha

    First mowing

    1,49 1268 238 3,4

    Second mowing

    3,29 3212 429 5,3

    Third mowing

    3,65 3536 451 5,5

    Total, average

    8,33 8014 388 4,9

     

     



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