Materials used in this chapter are published in book Biostimulant Albit for increasing yields and protection of agricultures against diseases, A.K. Zlotnikov, Ed. Prof. À. Melkumova. All-Russia Institute of Plant Protection, Russia, 2006.
Biological efficiency of Albit against: root rots is 14-100 %, helminthosporium rot is 14–94 %, septoria leaf spot is 21-100%, brown rust is 20-91%, powdery mildew is 21-96 %, loose smut is 10-60 %, stinking smut is 10-70%, stem rust is 50–87 %, net blotch 20–94 %.
Seed treatment with Albit protects plants from root rots, increasing germination, improves rootage and tillering. According to results of plant examination, it is appropriate to use Albit with half dose of chemical seed treatment fungicide, that reduces considerably the cost of treatment while protective effect remains the same as that of full dose. Application rate of Albit and working solution per tonne of seeds is 30-40 ml/tonne and 10 L/tonne respectively, the highest recommended dose in combination with chemical protectants is used in case of disease development. 1 litre of Albit can be used for the treatment of 25-33 tonnes of cereal seeds, which can be sowed over 100-133 hectares. Accordingly, treatment of seeds for 100 hectares of cereals takes 0,75-1 litre of Albit.
Foliar sprays with Albit promote growth of rootlets and formation of extra seeds in ear, protect plants from air infections (brown rust, powdery mildew, septoria leaf spot, etc.), relieve pesticide stress, increase temperature and drought resistance, accelerate maturing. They be performed at the stages of tillering– tubering and blossoming. Application rate of Albit and working solution is 30-40 ml/hectare and 300 L/hectare respectively. Each litre of Albit is enough for spraying of 25-33 hectares of crops, 100 hectares take 3-4 litres of Albit. To control air infections, Albit should be used before appearance of the first signs of infections. Joint foliar spray of Albit with liquid fertilizers, fungicides, herbicides and fungicides is also possible.
The results obtained in the field trials show the high efficiency of treatment with Albit/herbicide combination of winter wheat and barley in tillering stage (EC stages 20-29). The plants weakened by hibernation, root rots and herbicidal stress respond to Albit treatment with great yield increase, which might reach 10 centners/hectare under field conditions.
As is known, application of herbicides inflicts severe stress on the cereals. Due to the stress, application of herbicides on spring wheat and barley often does not result in yield increase, i.e. this method is not economically sound. Thus, to control weeds, use of more intense mechanical soil treatment and choice of appropriate predecessor (rye, canola) is necessary, but the most effective way is using antidotes such as Albit. It ensures the desired yield increase of herbicide treated cereals. Moreover, herbicidal treatments decrease plant resistance to air infections that makes additional fungicidal treatments necessary. Albit as an immunizer abolish this effect of herbicides and allows avoiding use of expensive fungicides. In case of highly infectious environment, when using of fungicide is necessary anyway, it is possible to use foliar spray with combination of Albit/half dose of fungicide that is quite profitable.
The first foliar spray (at the stages of tillering– tubering, EC 20-39) is the most significant one. The second treatment might be used as an additional agricultural technique (for yield quality improvement mainly), but it should follow earlier treatments (presowing treatment or 1-st foliar spraying) anyway. Presowing treatment has greater influence on yield than on yield quality, whereas foliar sprays are more effective for gluten content increase. One of the most effective examples is using of Albit in blossoming/ear formation stage (EC 50-69) in combination with insecticide (against chinch) and urea in southern regions of Russia. Due to relieving of insecticide stress Albit noticeably increases ability of plants to use urea nitrogen for protein synthesis that increases the gluten content by 1,2–4,6 % over control (use of insecticide alone). For northern regions, the second foliar spray is inexpedient.
Also, very effective techniques are:
- The double daily-repeated treatment of cereals with Albit. For example,
use of Albit/herbicide combination for the first day treatment and Albit alone
(or in combination with other pesticides) on the next day. The second treatment
can reinforce the first one more than twofold.
The effects of Albit presowing treatment and foliar sprays to yield increase are almost equal for cereals. Sometimes (when it seems profitable), it is appropriate to use presowing treatment of foliar spraying alone, but maximal effectiveness can be reached only in combination of these methods. One full complex treatment (presowing treatment+2 foliar sprays) takes averagely 90 ml of Albit, 1 litre can be used for treatment of 11,1 hectares.
Each litre of Albit provides 50 centners of winter wheat or 39 centners of spring barley of average extra yield. Due to high profitability, Albit now is one of the most economically sound means of treatment of cereals. However, it is necessary to note that Albit works well only under conditions of low infectious environment. At the danger of intense disease development or in conditions of epiphytoty, at least partial use of chemical means of plant protection is desirable despite their high cost.