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Soybean

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Materials used in this chapter were published in the book Biostimulant Albit for increasing yields and protection of agricultures against diseases, A.K. Zlotnikov, Ed. Prof. . Melkumova. All-Russia Institute of Plant Protection, Russia, 2006.


On soybean, Albit is applied as antidote for decrease of side phytotoxic effect of herbicides on crop. In Russia, Albit is officially registered as a plant growth regulator of soybean. Albit increases field germination capacity, the number of nitrogen-fixing nodules, accelerates plant growth and development, improves plant resistance to unfavorable conditions of the environment, provides defense against plant diseases, decreases the stress after herbicide treatment. Albit increases soybean yield and improves the yield quality.

On soybean Albit has been tested since 2001 yr. in field trials of Moscow, Voronezh oblasts, Krasnodar, Primorsk, Habarovsk territories, Kabardino-Balkaria, USA, Austria, Belarus and others. Field trials were conducted on var. Vilana, Mageva, Lan, Luchezarnaya, Lancetnaya, Ivan Karamanov, Primorskaya 13, 81 and 86 and others by All-Russia Institute of Plant Protection, All-Russia Institute of Biological Plant Protection, All-Russia Institute of Vegetable Selection and Seed Breeding, Kuban State Agrarian University, Far Eastern Institute of Plant Protection, Far Eastern Research Centre (Agricultural Research Institute of Primorsky krai), Kokov State Agricultural Academy in Kabardino-Balkaria, Chapaev breeding farm, Breeding farm Kuban in Krasnodar krai and also other institutes and farms. In last decades Albit has been widely and successfully applied on this culture in agricultural practice of farms of Central Chernozem Region, Stavropol and Krasnodar territories, Far East, Belarus, Ukraine, Austria, USA etc.

After Albit treatment of soybean, increase of resistance to pests and stress factors of environment were observed (Retman S.V. Soybean protection / S.V. Retman, A.I. Borzykh, T.N. Kislykh et al. // Application of the journal Plant Protection and Quarantine, 4, 2015 p. 73 (21). (In Russian)). According to results of conducted trials, treatment with Albit increased yield of soybean by 3.2 centners/hectare (19.6%). Depending on year, variety, region and method of application, yield increase varied from 1.1 to 7.5 centners/hectare. Albit demonstrated the average biological efficiency (BE) against diseases: Fusarium seedling root rot, Ascochyta leaf and pod spot, Septoria brown spot and Cercospora leaf spot of 61.5%, 53.3% 52.1% and 31%, respectively. Fungicidal activity of Albit was observed at disease prevalence of 6-22%.

The first recommended seed treatment with Albit has a positive effect (Fig. 1).

 

Fig. 1. Seed treatment with Albit increases germination, accelerates growth and development of soybean plants in field conditions. Check control, Treated treatment with Albit (Stephen Scott farm, Georgia, USA, 2014)

 

For seed treatment Albit may be applied with fungicidal protectans (Albit enhances their efficacy because of own immunization effect, Fig. 2), with products of nodule bacteria. Soybean seeds (var. Selekta) were treated with Albit and also with mix of Albit + rhizobial inoculants (All-Russia Institute of Biological Plant Protection, Krasnodar, 2015). As a result, the number of nitrogen-fixing nodules increased in variants with Albit + rhizobial inoculants. Yield increase was also observed (Fig. 3).

 

Fig. 2. Influence of seed treatment with Albit on growth and development of soybean plants in pot experiments. Albit removes pesticide stress in soybean plants. Variants: 1 control, 2 Albit, 3 fungicide, 4 Albit + fungicide (Skryabin Institute of Biochemistry and Physiology of Microorganisms, Moscow oblast, 2007)

 

It is recommended to use increased dose of Albit (60-80 mL/t) in combination with inoculants of nodule bacteria, because bacteria may partially destroy Albit. Treated seeds should be stored no more 1 day before sowing. Foliar spraying with Albit is recommended at the budding stage.

 

Fig. 3. Influence of Albit on yield of soybean var. Selecta (Albit was added to rhizobial inoculants, All-Russia Institute of Biological Plant Protection, Krasnodar, 2015)

 

Albit increases field germination (by 2-15%) (Fig. 1), weight of 1000 seeds, the number of pods per plant, accelerates growth of shoots, increases the number of leaves (Fig. 4), promotes blossoming, increases plant resistance to drought and herbicide stress.

 

Fig. 4. Influence of Albit on growth of soybean plants in the field conditions (All-Russia Research Institute of Legumes and Groat Crops, Oryol oblast, 2007)

 

On photos you can see PhD .V. Lebedev (dealer of LLC Albit in Krasnodar krai). He demonstrated growth of soybean plants in dry conditions on field of Ladozhskoe farm (the leading farm for soybean growing in Krasnodar krai) and in adjacent Chapaev breeding farm (Figs. 5, 6).

 

Fig 5. .V. Lebedev (dealer of LLC Albit in Krasnodar krai) on soybean plot treated with Albit (Chapaev breeding farm, team 3). Left - plot treated with Albit, right - control. Dealer stands on plot treated with Albit (2012)

 

 

Fig. 6. .V. Lebedev (dealer of LLC Albit in Krasnodar krai) with soybean plants grown without Albit (right hand) and with Albit treatment (left hand) (Ladozhskoe farm, 2012)

 

 After Albit treatment the number f pods per plant was 108 pcs. Albit had no effect on number of seeds in pod, however product increased the number and weight of pods. It is the main mechanism for soybean yield increase after Albit treatment. Treatment with Albit causes increased photosynthetic activity due to forming of side shoots and leaves. It promotes forming of increased number of pods (by 25-35% over control) at the second half of vegetation season (All-Russia Institute of Vegetable Selection and Seed Breeding, 2005) (Figs. 6, 7).

 

Fig. 7. Influence of Albit treatment on dynamics of growth and development of soybean var. Mageva. Control (without treatment) is taken as 100% (All-Russia Institute of Vegetable Selection and Seed Breeding, Moscow oblast, 2005)

 

Albit increases yield and also crop quality. Application of Albit provides 46 kg and 73 kg of extra soybean oil and protein (per hectare), respectively (according to data of Kuban State Agrarian University, 2004-2006). Profitability of product using was ca. 302%. In field trials of Kabardino-Balkaria State Agricultural Academy 287 kg of soybean oil per ha and 492 kg protein per ha were harvested, profitability was 180.3% (2010-2011).

It is recommended to conduct presowing seed treatment and one foliar spraying. Contribution of these kinds of treatment to yield increase and disease control is approximately equal. The recommended application rates are 50 mL/t (seed treatment) and 40-50 mL/ha (foliar spraying at the stage of 2-3 true leaves, 12-13 or at the budding stage, BCH 50-60). 50 mL/h is applied for plant immunization. Albit may be applied as antidote in tank mix with herbicides, according to recommendations for last ones.

In recommended doses Albit increases the number of nitrogen-fixing nodules on the soybean roots (up to 40% to control). Additional spraying increases this value up to 53% (Fig. 8).

 

Fig. 8.  Influence of seed treatment with Albit on number of formed nodules (All-Russia Institute of Biological Plant Protection, Krasnodar, 2012). From left to right: Albit, control (without treatment), treatment with bioproduct standard

 

Complex treatment with Albit (seed treatment + foliar spraying) is ca. 50 mL/ha. One liter of Albit is applied for treatment of 20 h and provides extra yield (ca. 64 centners of seeds).

It is known that soybean is highly subject to toxic influence of herbicide treatments. These treatments can lead to loss up to half of yield (Ignatenko V.A. Choice of pesticides for soybean: you can not be wrong / Pole Avgusta (Augusts Field). 2005. 4. P. 5-6). Many herbicides applied against dicotyledonous weeds in dry and drought conditions cause sever burns and partial loss of chlorophyll in leaves. Herbicide stress in soybean plants may cause delay of nodule forming. This fact does not allow to fix the sufficient amount of nitrogen.

Using of herbicides with effective antidote (Albit) is the solving of this problem. Adding of Albit to herbicides does not decrease their efficacy against weeds. At the same time, Albit protects soybean plants against herbicide stress and provides extra yield in comparison with pure herbicide treatments (Fig. 9). In addition, Albit is applied in recommended dose for foliar spraying (40-50 mL/h).

 

Fig. 9. Biological and economic efficacy of herbicides and mix herbicide + Albit in field trials on soybean var. Lancetnaya (All-Russia Institute of Plant Protection, Voronezh oblast, 2007, 2008)

 

Albit accelerates soybean development, passing of phenological growth stages. As a result, effective vegetation period reduces. Field trials of All-Russia Institute of Vegetable Selection and Seed Breeding and All-Russia Institute of Plant Protection proved that Albit helps effective growing of soybean in North regions (Voronezh, Lipeck, Moscow, Kaluga oblasts). According to data of DalAgroChimProm company, in conditions of Far East antidote effect of Albit is especially noted when using herbicides based on  imazethapyr. For example, in conditions of Primore krai these products prolongated vegetation period of soybean. Fast-ripening varieties do not have time for forming yield in frost conditions in the middle of September; in some years frost seeds are 50-60% of yield (Mashchenko N.V., Koloniitsev F.B. Forming of assortment of pesticides used on soybean crops in the Priamur region // Materials of All-Russia conference 'Improvement of registration tests of agrochemicals'. oscow, 2009). In these conditions, besides of antidote effect, Albit accelerates plant growth, allowing to harvest in time.

Application of Albit (40 mL/h) with herbicide based on imazethapyr (at the stage of 2 ternate leaves) increases yield of soybean var. Vilana by 6.5 centner/h (25.5% over variant with using pure herbicides) (All-Russia Institute of Biological Plant Protection, Krasnodar krai, 2009). When adding of Albit to herbicide, activity of the last one against weeds (barnyard grass, Abutilon theophrasti, Amaranthus retroflexus, Portulaca oleracea, Convolvulus arvensis) did not decrease. It is interesting to note that, Albit had antidote effect when seeds were treated with Albit  and then plants were sprayed with herbicide. In this case Albit seemed to be prepared plants to herbicide stress. After Albit application in dose 50 mL/t, yield increase was 23,5% over variant with herbicide control. This fact can not be explained only from the point of view of growth-stimulating activity of Albit, because seed treatment with Albit 50 mL/t in variant with pure control without herbicide provided only 11.8% of yield increase.

Both antidote and growth-stimulating effects of Albit are maximal after 2 fold Albit application (seed treatment + foliar spraying with herbicide). In this field trial yield increase was 8.7 centner/h (34.1% to control pure herbicides).

In field trials Albit was combined with herbicides based on imazethapyr, hlorimuron-ethyl + imazethapyr, thifensulfuron-methyl, water solution, containing 90% isodecyl alcohol + ethoxylated (alphaisodecyl-omega-hydroxypoly (oxyethylene), quizalofop-P-ethyl, clomazon, imazamox and others. Overall, based on all conducted trials on soybean, application of Albit with post-emergent herbicides provided extra yield 3.2 centner/h (19.1% over variant with pure herbicide application). Antidote activity of Albit for overcoming of pesticide stress in soybean plants was shown in 3 methods of Albit application: seed treatment (before herbicide application), in combination with herbicides, foliar spraying with Albit 3-7 days after herbicide application.

Anti-stress activity of Albit is also shown in the case of increasing of soybean drought resistance. Because of increased seed germination, accelerated plant development, soybean plants better tolerate drought. On biochemical level Albit increases parameters of drought resistance such as moisture-retaining power, heat-resistance. It also reduces the intensity of transpiration. In spite of heat and dry, plants developed normally. It allowed to form yield. For example, this fact was observed in 2003 and in during the following dry years in farms of Krasnodar krai. Increase of stress-resistance after Albit treatment leaded to resistance to man diseases. For instance, in field trials of Far Eastern Research Centre (Agricultural Research Institute) Albit increased plant resistance to stressful environmental factors in 2012, 2013 and 2016 yrs. In Priamure region, in conditions of high infection level and unfavourable weather conditions, increasing of adaptability and immunity of crop is a very important for phytosanitary situation. Alternation of drought periods and cloudburst, high day and low night temperatures are unfavourable conditions for development of soybean plants, so epiphytotytic development of diseases (Septoria leaf spot, Cercospora leaf spot, downy mildew, root rots) may occur. In these conditions seed treatment with Albit var. Ivan Karamanov (50 mL/t) increased germination energy by 6-32%, germination by 3-6.5%, in 2-3 times decreased infestation by Fusarium seedling root rot, bacteriosis, mixed Cercospora leaf spot and downy mildew diseases.  The following treatment with Albit at the budding-blossoming stages (40-50 mL/h) increased yield by 14-36% to control. Biological efficacy of Albit against Cercospora leaf spot, Septoria leaf spot, downy mildew and root rots was 26-36%, 10.5-99%, 45.3% and 28.5%, respectively. Thus, besides of stimulation of growth and development, biomass accumulation, increase the number of leaves, Albit also improved phytosanitary situation in soybean crops even in conditions of intensive and epiphytotytic development of fungal diseases due to increased immunity to them and physiological resistance to unfavorable environmental factors. It had a positive effect on soybean yield and seed quality.

There are more field trials of effective Albit application on soybean.

In field trials of Brest Regional Agricultural Experimental Station of the National Academy of Sciences (Belarus) pre-treated with rhizobial inoculants soybean seeds var. Pripyat were treated with Albit. This combined application gave extra yield 6.411.3% in 2008, 2009 and 2010 yrs. (15.017.1 centner/h in control). In farm Alexandrovskij (Ust-Labinskij region, Krasnodar krai, 2012) yield increase of soybean var. Tavria of Serbian breading was 10.0% (24.1 centner/h in control). On experimental farm Sunbelt Ag Expo (Georgia, USA) after treatment with Albit pre-treated seeds (with insecticide) of hybrid Syngenta 01 KG 118459 yield increase was 31.0% (yield in control 19.7 centner/h) (Fig. 10). After seed treatment of soybean var. Primorskaya 13, 81 and 86 yield increase was 10.6-16.6% to control (Primorsk krai, 2013-2014).

 

Fig. 10. Influence of seed treatment and foliar spraying with Albit on development of root system, the number of formed nodules and soybean yield (Georgia, US, 2013)

 

In the following Table, you may see all reports on performance of Albit on soybean, available in English. For all available reports, please see corresponding table on the Russian webpage

Year

Country

Region

Institute / Farm

Report

1.

2014

USA

Georgia

Stephen Scott farm

2.

2013

USA

Georgia

Sunbelt Ag Exposition

3.

2013

Austria

Upperaustria/ Hausruckviertl region

Weigl Thomas farm

4.

2010-2011

Russia

Kabardino-Balkaria

Kokov Kabardino-Balkarian State Agricultural Academy

5.

2003

Russia

Moscow region

All-Russia Institute of Vegetable Selection and Seed Breeding

6.

2001

Russia

Moscow region

All-Russia Institute of Vegetable Selection and Seed Breeding

 

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