Materials of this chapter are also published in:
Х Zlotnikov A. K., Durynina E. P., Zlotnikov K.M. (2000) Influence of biostimulant Albit on
main nutrients uptake of barley. Bulletin of Pryanishnikov All-Russia Institute of Fertilizers
and Agrology. Nr. 113. p. 88-90.
Х Durynina E.P., Pakhnenko O. A., Zlotnikov A. K., Zlotnikov K.M. (2006) Influence of biostimulant
Albit on barley productivity and content of biophilic elements in the yield. Agrochemistry. Nr. 1,
Questions on combined application of Albit and fertilizers for enhancement
their effect are reviewed here.
Questions on influence of Albit on soil fertility and phytosanitary
condition of soil are reviewed here.
Besides plant growth stimulation, Albit is able to improve mineral uptake
of plants. In other words, Albit acts as a soil bioremediant and
indirectly Ц as fertilizer.
There are several explanations of this activity:
Fig. 24. Increase of nutrient uptake from soil (S) and fertilizers (F) due to
treatments with Albit (Agrochemistry Department of Moscow State University, 2000).
Firstly, Albit contains balanced
starting set of macro- and microelements (nitrogen, phosphorus,
potassium, magnesium, sulphur and others), and since that our product may
be regarded to as fertilizer on the ground of its composition. Of course,
low application rates of Albit (30-50 ml/tonne of seeds or hectare) are
unable to supply plants with nutrients in full, but one-time application
of all necessary nutrients provides high plant growth effect in early stages
of development, which is a basis of future effective utilization of nutrients
from other sources.
Secondly, Albit increases efficiency of mineral
utilization by plants. It is well known, that plants utilize nitrogen,
potassium and phosphorus (NPK) of mineral fertilizers only partially. For
example, utilization of phosphoric fertilizers is just about 20%. Plant growth
regulators can increase this portion. As it was demonstrated in trials carried
out in Agrochemistry Department of Moscow State University (1999), treatment
with Albit increased uptake of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium by 25%,
47% and 18% respectively (Fig. 24). In addition, treatments with
Albit decreased consumption of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium necessary
for grain formation by 2-7% Application of Albit reduced nitrogen
consumption for unit of commodity output by 3.7-7.0 mg, and potassium
consumption by 11.4 mg. Application of Albit increased NPK transport into
spring wheat grain by 10-70%, into straw Ц by 2-45%, depending on agrochemical
conditions. High auxin activity of Albit increases transport of nutrients
into plant tissues treated with Albit (attractant activity). Thus, Albit
increases efficiency of mineral fertilizers. Joint
application of Albit and fertilizers in details is described here.
Thirdly, besides direct influence on plants, Albit also
improves nutrient supply of crops due to its positive influence on
favorable soil microflora. Generally, necessary nutrients are present
in sufficient amounts, but in hardly consumable form (insoluble, adsorbed).
Bacteria of soil microbial community are able to solubilize certain amounts
of unutilizable phosphorus and potassium and convert atmospheric nitrogen into
consumable for plants form. Albit supports amplification of such bacteria (nitrogen
fixing, plant growth stimulating, etc.). According to data of Agrochemistry
Department of Moscow State University, application of Albit increased
soil nitrogen uptake of plants by 43%, phosphorus uptake Ц by 33%, potassium
uptake Ц by 38% (Fig.24). Owing to improvement of natural nitrogen
fixation, hectare rate of Albit (40 ml) containing just 9.43 g of urea, is
able to substitute up to 40 kg of urea per hectare (approximately 4200 times
Additional phosphorus supply of plants also increases resistance of cereals
to root rots, since phosphorus suppresses development of such diseases due
to improvement of rootage development.
Table 17. Influence of Albit on consumption of nitrogen and
phosphorus fertilizers by plants grown in averagely cultivated sod-podzol soil
(Agrochemistry Department of Moscow State University, 2000).
| Nutrient provision level
||Rate of nitrogen fertilizers replaceable with Albit (kg/hectare
of active ingredient)
||Rate of phosphorous fertilizers replaceable with Albit (kg/hectare
of active ingredient)
Due to both increase of nutrient uptake efficiency and provision with additional
nutrients from soil, reduction of fertilizers consumption becomes
possible. According to data of Agrochemistry Department of Moscow State University,
application of Albit is able to replace about 18.7 kg/hectare
of a.i. nitrogen (N2 O5) and 14.2 kg/hectare
of phosphorus (P2 O5), i.e.,
20-50% of standard application rates (these data are obtained in laboratory,
under field they might be a bit lower, about 10-30%)
Agrochemical properties of Albit were thoroughly studied in
vegetation trials carried out by Agrochemistry Department of Moscow State University
Plants were treated with Albit according to standard methodology (presowing
seed treatment, 15/60 ml/tonne, double foliar spraying in EC stages 20-29 and
30-39, 30-150 ml/hectare). Solution remaining after presowing treatment was
used for additional soil treatment (0.9 ml/pot). Rates of active ingredients
in mineral fertilizers were 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15 g/kg of soil (rate of 0.1 g/kg
was considered as optimal). Nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus were applied
in ratio 1:1:1. Lack and excess of active ingredient was obtained through 50%
increase of decrease of rate. Thus, each element was used in ratio 0.5, 1 и
1.5 relatively to two other elements (i.e., 0.5:1:1, 1:1:1 и 1.5:1:1).
Application of Albit decreased consumption of nutrients (NPK)
necessary for grain formation up to 88-93% of original one. Due to Albit, nitrogen
uptake in fertilizers-free set was increased by 43%, phosphorous uptake Ц by
33%, potassium uptake Ц by 38%; in set treated with optimal rate Ц by 25, 47
and 18 % respectively.
Calculations of Albit efficiency and examination of its participation in
feeding of barley (performed according to BoldyrevТs method for calculation
of fertilizer rates for prospected yield by complex analytical foliar diagnostics)
demonstrated, that Albit is able to replace 14.1-21.3 kg of
N2 O5 /hectare
and 9.2-15.1 kg of P2 O5 /hectare
depending on original nutrient provision level.
In other words, this corresponds to:
Albit also improves utilization of potassium fertilizers, increasing potassium
transport into grain and straw by 19-30% and 26-32% respectively.
Increase of phosphorous and nitrogen transport into grain was 24 and 40% respectively
and into straw was 24 and 29% respectively.
- 49 kg/hectare of ammonium nitrate,
- 40 kg/hectare of urea,
- 65 kg/hectare of superphosphate,
- 39 kg/hectare of triple superphosphate.
From the agrochemical point of view, Albit doses of 30
ml/tonne, 30-60 ml/hectare were the most effective ones .
Under this conditions, relative grain yield increase was approximately twice
higher than straw yield increase, i.e. positive influence of Albit was directed
mostly on formation of generative plant structures. Application of higher
doses (up to 150 ml) was not so efficient. Generally, application of Albit
provided biological grain yield increase from 13.2 to 44.5% and straw yield
increase from 20.5 to 49.0%. Thus, joint application of Albit and mineral
fertilizers can be very promising.
The regularities established by Agrochemistry Department
of Moscow State University were confirmed in trials performed by Aleysk Station
of Agrochemical Service (Altay krai, 2003).
According to results of the trials, application of Albit increased content
of nitrogen (by 0.06-0.19%) and phosphorus (by
0.06%) in grain, but did not changed content of potassium.
Increase of NPK content was obtained mostly in result of presowing seed treatment
(obviously, due to stimulation of rhizospheric microbial community). Foliar
sprayings with Albit increased content of calcium in grain
(by 0.07%), but decreased NPK content in straw (by 0.03-0.09%), that indicates
redistribution of nutrients towards grain induced by Albit.