Materials used in this chapter were published in:
• Ryabchinskaja, T. A., Harchenko, G.L. (2004) Immunization for protection of Apple
against scab. Materials of international conference ‘Biological plant defense as basis
of agricultural ecosystem stabilization’. p. 185-187., 2004, Krasnodar
• Ryabchinskaja, T. A., Harchenko, G.L., Saranceva, N.A.. (2005) New biological activator
of disease resistance. Protection and Quarantine of Plants. Nr 4. p. 26-27.
Application of Albit on Apple was examined in trials of All-Russia Institute
of Plant Protection of Voronezh oblast and All-Russia Institute of Horticulture
of Tambov oblast. Trials were carried out in 2002-2003 on var. Sinap severnyj,
Pepin shafrannyj and Zhiguljevskoe. Effectiveness of Albit application was also
confirmed in practice by farms of Krasnodar kraj, Voronezh and Tula oblasts.
According to results of tests, Albit treatment increased yield
averagely by 14.3 centners/hectare (8.5% over control). BE of Albit agains scab
was 51-60%; its fungicidal activity was detected for scab prevalence and development
of 2-72% and 1-35% respectively. In Russia, Albit officially registered as
fungicide against scab of apple, economical and biological
efficiency of Albit is not inferior to that of chemical protectants based
on a.i. difenoconazole, trifloxystrobin, flutriafol and benomyl. According
to preliminary tests, Albit can immunize apple also against other diseases.
Besides yield increase and disease control, Albit improves growing processes,
increases assimilation surface and photosynthetic activity of leaves. In trials
of All-Russia Institute of Horticulture, Albit treatment simultaneously stimulates
both growing potential of plants (photosynthetic activity) and their ability to
resist diseases (catalase activity).
Application recommendations Albit is used for spraying of trees;
number of treatments is from 2 to 5. It is recommended to use Albit for preventive
plant immunization (before appearance of the first signs of disease) and in stages
of bud and blossom emergence, ‘rose bud’, end of blossoming, ‘hazelnut’, ‘walnut’.
The recommended application rate of Albit is 100 ml/hectare; cost of single treatment
is 220 roubles. On small plots, treatments are performed with solution of 1 ml of
Albit/10 L of water, 2-5 L/tree.
Albit application on apple should be combined with standard disease and pest
protection treatments. For example, at the stages of:
- bud and blossom emergence, ‘rose bud’: Albit treatment should be
combined with standard pesticide treatments against apple-blossom weevil (bugs and
larvae), apple moth, leaf-roller moth, sawfly, coccids, etc, and with fungicides
against brown fruit rot, scab, powdery mildew. Since at this stage using of
copper-containing fungicides (which is quite toxic for apple) is recommended,
addition of Albit (as an antidote) to fungicide working solution might considerably
improve treatment results.
- end of blossoming: Albit treatment should be combined with
pesticide treatments against aphids, sawfly, apple moth, leaf-roller moth and
with complex fungicides. Using of Albit prevents toxic influence of organophosphorous
insecticides recommended at this stage.
- fruit growth (stages of ‘hazelnut’, ‘walnut’): Albit treatment
should be combined with pesticide treatments against seedworm and with copper-containing
fungicides to relieve fungicidal stress and to decrease pesticide content in fruits.
Schedule of Albit application may be reviewed to combine them with planned chemical
treatments. In any case, Albit treatment in first half of vegetation will provide positive
effect. Generally, results of Albit application can be detected even after second treatment;
if it necessary, number of treatments may be increased. The earlier Albit treatment, the more
significant effect it demonstrates. For example, using of Albit at the stage of bud emergency
demonstrates a greater effect than that one at the stages of fruit forming, because earlier
treatment immunizes plants in advance and provides prerequisites for accumulation of
As it was noted earlier, it is efficient to use Albit in mixes with chemical
fungicides, especially with contact inorganic ones (copper containing,
for example), which are universally toxic for broad range of pathogens, but also
quite toxic for apple. This stressful action can be effectively relieved with Albit,
which also increases fungicidal effect of mix due to its immunizing action.
Using of biologically active compounds and decrease of fungicide rates is a common
way for reducing of fungicide pressure on plants. In our case, it
is reached through 25-50% decrease of fungicide rates in combination with Albit, or
through replacement of part of fungicidal treatments with Albit treatments. For example,
All-Russia Institute of Horticulture used decreased rates of difenoconazole based fungicide,
All-Russia Institute of Plant Protection replaced first fungicidal treatments with Albit
ones. In result, the total fungicide protection was the same as in control (standard
protection scheme, treatments with fungicides based on a.i. difenoconazole trifloxystrobin,
flutriafol and benomyl), whereas yield was higher. Despite of standard protection, 13.8% of
fruits of the less scab-resistant apple var. Pepin shafrannyj were infested with scab, whereas
using of Albit decreased this amounts more than twice (6.6%). It is necessary to note, that
fungicidal activity of Albit is based on immunization, therefore it is effective only before
appearance of the first signs of disease. Replacement of chemical fungicides with Albit is
ineffective for disease elimination; one can use only addition of Albit to
full doses of fungicides to decrease their toxicity to apple.
Nowadays, drying of shoots, branches or even trees has become scourge of gardens of
central ‘black-earth’ regions of Russia. According to opinion of many specialists, the
cause of this phenomenon is Monilia blossom wilt (pathogenic agent —
Monilia cinerea f. mali Wormald). Bacteria can be also participating in pathogenesis
(they were isolated from ill plants). Possibly, it is an infection of complex etiology;
high speed and magnitude of infestations are analogous to that of viral infections that
killed fruit gardens in US in a great number. The situation is aggravated by low
effectiveness of the fungicides offered against this disease.
Since Albit improves universal mechanisms of plant defense against broad range of
infections, one can assume its immunizing effectiveness against diseases caused by
unknown pathogenic agents. Of course, Albit is unable to cure Monilia-infested trees,
but it can restrict further propagation of disease. Application of Albit increases
catalase activity in plants, that increases their ability to resist infestation.
According to this properties of Albit, it is especially effective to immunize plants
at the stages of bud emergency (since conidiaspore form of Monilia infection generally
infect flowers) and at the leaf bud opening (ascospores of Monilia generally infect
Effectiveness of combination of Albit with insecticides, as it was demonstrated
in many examples, is based on relieving of their toxic influence on plants that
prevent yield loss. It is not recommended to decrease
insecticide rates when using Albit.
According to conclusion of All-Russia Institute of Plant Protection, it is
perspective to include Albit into the apple protection system to decrease plant
pathogens injuriousness and to increase apple productivity. Application of Albit
makes possible 3-fold decrease of chemical fungicides consumption, which is crucial
for obtaining of organic production used for child’s feeding and for
economical effectiveness. Averagely, Albit treatments provide 1300-11000
roubles of net profit from one hectare.